The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) conducted research regarding the efficiency of heating and cooling systems. As explained in the results of the study, NIST was the first organization to evaluate the links between poor installation and the system’s efficiency. The head of the study, Piotr Domanski, stated that, “Our measurements indicate that improper installation could increase household energy use for space heating and cooling on the order of 30 percent over what it should be.”
The most common error revealed in the study was faulty, leaking air ducts, followed by restricted airflow and improper refrigerant undercharge. Other factors contribute to poor performance as well in different types of equipment like heat pumps and air conditioners. Essentially, simultaneous defects give rise to increased energy expenditure.